The Town of Hamilton includes rolling farmland and small towns. Two villages, the Village of Hamilton and the Village of Earlville, as well as the hamlets of Poolville, Hubbardsville and East Hamilton are within the town borders. Colgate University, a nationally ranked liberal arts college, is located in the Village of Hamilton.

The Town of Hamilton is located on the southern border of Madison County with Chenango County to the south. We are near the geographic center of New York State. The Town covers 41.4 square miles and is home to 6,690 residents, as of the 2010 census.

On May 9, 2019, the Town Council Adopted the following Statement:
The Town of Hamilton, NY commits to be a welcoming community and to recognize the right of individuals to live their lives with dignity, free of discrimination based on their race, religion, creed, color, sexual orientation, gender identity, ability, national origin or immigration status. We therefore denounce all ideologies based on hatred and intolerance, and further condemn every group that espouses and actively promotes ideologies of hate.